MII RetCam assisted smartphone based fundus imaging for retinopathy of prematurity

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jun;67(6):834-839. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_268_19.


Purpose: The gold standard for evaluating Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a potentially blinding disease in preterm babies, is by indirect ophthalmoscopy which is quite subjective. Digital imaging with RetCam, an advanced wide field imaging system is more precise but it is not easily available or affordable. Smartphones are being explored as an alternate cost effective and accessible imaging tool. This is possible because of the good illumination and the built-in high resolution cameras available in modern smartphones. The aim of this study is to illustrate the utility of MII RetCam assisted smartphone based fundus imaging (MSFI) in the documentation and monitoring of ROP.

Methods: Single-centre, retrospective observational study of all the preterm babies subjected to MSFI as part of ROP screening from September 2017 to November 2018. iPhone 4S and + 20 Diopter lens attached to the MII RetCam device was used for fundus imaging at baseline and during follow up. The statistical analysis used for the same is the SPSS statistical software.

Results: Good quality images of central and peripheral retina could be captured in 33 out of 42 babies (78.57%) with ROP. Serial imaging done in 24 babies with ROP helped in precise monitoring of the disease and planning management. Incidentally detected non-ROP findings were also documented. Unique design of the device enabled imaging by a single examiner. Image database created was useful for academic and counselling purposes. Smaller field images which can cause difficulty in distinguishing the zones is a limitation.

Conclusion: MSFI is a potential alternate imaging tool enabling objective documentation and monitoring of ROP in low resource settings.

Keywords: Fundus imaging; MII RetCam; retinopathy of prematurity; smartphone.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Neonatal Screening / methods*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / diagnosis*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Smartphone*
  • Telemedicine / instrumentation*