Smartphone guided wide-field imaging for retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit - a Smart ROP (SROP) initiative

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019 Jun;67(6):840-845. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1177_18.


Purpose: To suggest a low cost, non-contact smartphone-based screening system in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to illustrate its potential clinical application as a potential future tool for teleophthalmology.

Methods: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)-based bedside ROP screening done between January 2018 and May 2018. Documentation of ROP was done by using a smartphone and +40D, +28D, or +20D indirect non-contact condensing lenses. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. With smartphone-based camera we extracted high-quality still images extracted from the video clip.

Results: Total of 228 eyes of 114 infants screened for ROP between January 2018 and May 2018. Incidence of total ROP was 23.68%, out of which incidence of type 1 ROP was 8.77%. After initial screening with indirect ophthalmoscope, we uesd smartphone imaging to document ROP in 28 eyes out of 55 eyes having ROP. Image quality was good in 89.28% eyes. Field of view vary from 46°, 53°, and 90° with +20D, +28D, and +40D indirect condensing lenses, respectively, which gives excellent images for bedside ROP documentation.

Conclusion: The described technique of smartphone fundus photography is a light weight, cost-effective, user friendly, high-quality wide-field fundus photographs for bedside documentation of ROP in NICUs using readily available instruments that are handy and portable with simple power sources. Smartphones has the potential to be operated with only one hand. It can also be used as a future telescreening device.

Keywords: Condensing lens-Smartphone-MIIRetCam (CSM) device assembly; neonatal intensive care unit; retinopathy of prematurity.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Equipment Design
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal*
  • Male
  • Neonatal Screening / methods*
  • Ophthalmoscopy / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity / diagnosis*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Smartphone*
  • Telemedicine / instrumentation*