Chitosan nano-encapsulation improves the effects of mint, thyme, and cinnamon essential oils in broiler chickens

Br Poult Sci. 2019 Oct;60(5):530-538. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2019.1622078. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chitosan nano-encapsulating mint (MEO), thyme (TEO) and cinnamon (CEO) essential oils (EOs) used in the diet on performance, immune responses and intestinal bacteria population in broiler chickens. A total of 600 mixed-sex, 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment as completely randomised design with 8 experimental groups (diets) with 5 replicates of 15 chicks each (totally 40 pens). The eight experimental diets consisted of no EO and free distiller water (control); no EO and chitosan nano-encapsulated (CNE) distiller water; and other six treatments with free or CNE form of MEO, TEO and CEO (added at 0.025%, 0.04% and 0.055% respectively to starter, grower and finisher diets). Both EOs and the CNE form had significant (P < 0.05) benefits on improving body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio in periods of 29-42 and 1-42 days. The highest effect was (P < 0.05) obtained in birds receiving TEO, which was intensified by nano-encapsulation. Breast percentage was improved by nano-encapsulation (P < 0.05). The EOs (especially TEO and CEO) and CNE form improved (P < 0.05) serum IgY and IgM concentrations (at 35 and 42 days) and intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and E. coli populations (at 42 days) in broilers. Nano-encapsulated EOs, especially TEO and CEO had (P < 0.05) the largest effect on increasing IgY42 concentrations and the microbial populations. The tested EOs, especially TEO, improved more of the evaluated traits in broiler chickens. Also, Chitosan nano-encapsulation because of its ideal properties can be an effective, suitable and inexpensive method for protecting bioactive compounds and improving effects of the herbal EOs especially thyme in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Broilers; essential oils; immunity; intestinal microflora; nano-encapsulation; performance.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Chickens / growth & development
  • Chickens / immunology
  • Chickens / microbiology*
  • Chickens / physiology*
  • Chitosan / chemistry
  • Cinnamomum zeylanicum / chemistry
  • Diet / veterinary
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / drug effects*
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology
  • Male
  • Nanoparticles / administration & dosage*
  • Nanoparticles / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Plant Oils / administration & dosage
  • Plant Oils / metabolism
  • Random Allocation
  • Thymus Plant / chemistry

Substances

  • Oils, Volatile
  • Plant Oils
  • Chitosan
  • peppermint oil