Public Health Service guidelines for counseling and antibody testing to prevent HIV infection and AIDS

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1987 Aug 14;36(31):509-15.


PIP: Guidelines for counseling and testing for HIV antibody are based on public health considerations for HIV testing, including the principles of counseling before and after testing, confidentiality of personal information, and the understanding that a person may decline to be tested without being denied health care services, except where testing is required by law. Counseling before testing may not be practical when screening of HIV antibody is required, as in donors of blood, organs and tissue; prisoners; and immigrants for whom testing is a Federal requirement as well as for persons admitted to stated correctional institutions in states that require testing. When there is no counseling before testing, persons should be informed that testing for HIV antibody will be performed, that individual results will be kept confidential to the extent permitted by law, and that appropriate counseling will be offered. Individual counseling of those who are either HIV-antibody positive or at continuing risk of HIV infection is critical for reducing further transmission and for ensuring timely medical care. Specific recommendations are given for the following groups: persons who may have sexually transmitted disease, intravenous drug abusers, persons who consider themselves at risk, women of childbearing age, persons planning marriage, persons undergoing medical evaluation or treatment, persons admitted to hospitals, persons in correctional systems, and prostitutes. Sexual partners and those who share needles with HIV-infected persons are at risk for HIV infection and should be routinely counseled and tested for HIV antibody.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis*
  • Counseling
  • Female
  • HIV / immunology
  • HIV Antibodies
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Premarital Examinations
  • Prisoners
  • Sex Work
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications
  • United States
  • United States Public Health Service


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • HIV Antibodies