Post-prandial hyperglycemia is still a challenging issue in intensified insulin therapy. Data of 35 T1D patients during a four-week period were analyzed: RT-CGM (real time continuous glucose monitoring) record, insulin doses, diet (including meal photos), energy expenditure, and other relevant conditions. Patients made significant errors in carbohydrate counting (in 56% of cooked and 44% of noncooked meals), which resulted in inadequate insulin doses. Subsequently, a mobile application was programmed to provide individualized advice on prandial insulin dose. When using the application, a patient chooses only the type of categorized situation (e.g., meals with other relevant data) without carbohydrates counting. The application significantly improved postprandial glycemia as normoglycemia was reached in 95/105 testing sessions. Other important findings of the study include: A high intake of saturated fat (median: 162% of recommended intake); a low intake of fiber and vitamin C (median: 42% and 37%, respectively, of recommended intake); an increase in overweight/obesity status (according to body fat measurement), especially in women (median of body fat: 30%); and low physical activity (in 16/35 patients). The proposed individualized approach without carbohydrate counting may help reach postprandial normoglycemia but it is necessary to pay attention to the lifestyle habits of T1D patients too.
Keywords: carbohydrate counting; diet; mobile application; obesity; overweight; postprandial glycaemia; prandial insulin bolus; type 1 diabetes.