The main aim of this review study was to report the state of art on the nano-scale technological advancements of titanium implant surfaces to enhance the osseointegration process. Several methods of surface modification are chronologically described bridging ordinary methods (e.g. grit blasting and etching) and advanced physicochemical approaches such as 3D-laser texturing and biomimetic modification. Functionalization procedures by using proteins, peptides, and bioactive ceramics have provided an enhancement in wettability and bioactivity of implant surfaces. Furthermore, recent findings have revealed a combined beneficial effect of micro- and nano-scale modification and biomimetic functionalization of titanium surfaces. However, some technological developments of implant surfaces are not commercially available yet due to costs and a lack of clinical validation for such recent surfaces. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to endorse the use of enhanced biomimetic implant surfaces. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Grit-blasting followed by acid-etching is currently used for titanium implant modifications, although recent technological biomimetic physicochemical methods have revealed enhanced osteoconductive and anti-microbial outcomes. An improvement in wettability and bioactivity of titanium implant surfaces has been accomplished by combining micro and nano-scale modification and functionalization with protein, peptides, and bioactive compounds. Such morphological and chemical modification of the titanium surfaces induce the migration and differentiation of osteogenic cells followed by an enhancement of the mineral matrix formation that accelerate the osseointegration process. Additionally, the incorporation of bioactive molecules into the nanostructured surfaces is a promising strategy to avoid early and late implant failures induced by the biofilm accumulation.
Keywords: Functionalization; Implant; Implant-bone interface; Osseointegration; Titanium surface.
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