To better understand human behavior, the emerging field of model-based cognitive neuroscience seeks to anchor psychological theory to the biological substrate from which behavior originates: the brain. Despite complex dynamics, many researchers in this field have demonstrated that fluctuations in brain activity can be related to fluctuations in components of cognitive models, which instantiate psychological theories. In this review, we discuss a number of approaches for relating brain activity to cognitive models, and expand on a framework for imposing reciprocity in the inference of mental operations from the combination of brain and behavioral data.
Keywords: Brain mapping; Cognitive modeling; Model-based cognitive neuroscience.
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