A varying-coefficient generalized odds rate model with time-varying exposure: An application to fitness and cardiovascular disease mortality

Biometrics. 2019 Sep;75(3):853-863. doi: 10.1111/biom.13057. Epub 2019 Jun 17.


Varying-coefficient models have become a common tool to determine whether and how the association between an exposure and an outcome changes over a continuous measure. These models are complicated when the exposure itself is time-varying and subjected to measurement error. For example, it is well known that longitudinal physical fitness has an impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. It is not known, however, how the effect of longitudinal physical fitness on CVD mortality varies with age. In this paper, we propose a varying-coefficient generalized odds rate model that allows flexible estimation of age-modified effects of longitudinal physical fitness on CVD mortality. In our model, the longitudinal physical fitness is measured with error and modeled using a mixed-effects model, and its associated age-varying coefficient function is represented by cubic B-splines. An expectation-maximization algorithm is developed to estimate the parameters in the joint models of longitudinal physical fitness and CVD mortality. A modified pseudoadaptive Gaussian-Hermite quadrature method is adopted to compute the integrals with respect to random effects involved in the E-step. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through extensive simulation studies and is further illustrated with an application to cohort data from the Aerobic Center Longitudinal Study.

Keywords: B-splines; expectation-maximization algorithm; generalized odds rate model; joint modeling; varying coefficient.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Algorithms
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Physical Fitness*