The B6 vitamer pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a co-factor for proteins and enzymes that are involved in diverse cellular processes. Therefore, PLP is essential for organisms from all kingdoms of life. Here we provide an overview about the PLP-dependent proteins from the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Since B. subtilis serves as a model system in basic research and as a production host in industry, knowledge about the PLP-dependent proteins could facilitate engineering the bacteria for biotechnological applications. The survey revealed that the majority of the PLP-dependent proteins are involved in metabolic pathways like amino acid biosynthesis and degradation, biosynthesis of antibacterial compounds, utilization of nucleotides as well as in iron and carbon metabolism. Many PLP-dependent proteins participate in de novo synthesis of the co-factors biotin, folate, heme, and NAD+ as well as in cell wall metabolism, tRNA modification, regulation of gene expression, sporulation, and biofilm formation. A surprisingly large group of PLP-dependent proteins (29%) belong to the group of poorly characterized proteins. This review underpins the need to characterize the PLP-dependent proteins of unknown function to fully understand the "PLP-ome" of B. subtilis.
Keywords: PLP-ome; amino transferase; metabolic engineering; toxicity; vitamin B6.