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Cyanidin-3- O-galactoside-enriched Aronia M elanocarpa Extract Attenuates Weight Gain and Adipogenic Pathways in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice

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Cyanidin-3- O-galactoside-enriched Aronia M elanocarpa Extract Attenuates Weight Gain and Adipogenic Pathways in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice

Su-Min Lim et al. Nutrients.

Abstract

: Aronia melanocarpa are a rich source of anthocyanins that have received considerable interest for their relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside-enriched Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in an in vivo system. Five-week-old male C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into five groups for 8-week feeding with a control diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD with 50 (AM-Ex 50), 100 (AM-Ex 100), or 200 AM-Ex (AM-Ex 200) mg/kg body weight/day. HFD-fed mice showed a significant increase in body weight compared to the CD group, and AM-Ex dose-dependently inhibited this weight gain. AM-Ex significantly reduced the food intake and the weight of white fat tissue, including epididymal fat, retroperitoneal fat, mesenteric fat, and inguinal fat. Treatment with AM-Ex (50 to 200 mg/kg) reduced serum levels of leptin, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that AM-Ex suppressed adipogenesis by decreasing CCAAT/enhancer binding protein , peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions. These results suggest that AM-Ex is potentially beneficial for the suppression of HFD-induced obesity by modulating multiple pathways associated with adipogenesis and food intake.

Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa; adipogenesis; adipogenic transcription factor; cyanidin-3-O-galactoside; high fat induced obesity.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effect of Aronia melanocarpa extract (AM-Ex) administration on body weight in high fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6N mice. AM-Ex was administered by oral gavage for eight weeks to mice fed the HFD. Body weights were measured every week. Each body weight point represents the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) (n = 10). *** P < 0.001 significantly different from the control diet (CD) group. Means without a common letter differ between HFD, AM-Ex 50, AM-Ex-100, and AM-Ex 200 groups at P < 0.05.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of AM-Ex administration on weight of various adipose tissues and morphological changes in epididymal adipose tissue in HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice. AM-Ex was administered by oral gavage for eight weeks to mice fed HFD. (A) Adipose tissue weights in epididymal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, inguinal, and axillary fat. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 10). (B) Representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images of epididymal adipose tissues (n = 10). (C) The number of adipocytes over 120 μm was counted. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 10). 200 x magnification, Scale bar = 100 μm. *** P < 0.001 significantly different from the CD group. Means without a common letter differ between HFD, AM-Ex 50, AM-Ex 100, and AM-Ex 200 groups at P < 0.05.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of AM-Ex administration on the serum leptin and adiponectin levels in HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice. AM-Ex was administered by oral gavage for eight weeks while the mice were fed the HFD. The serum levels of leptin (A) and adiponectin (B) were measured with the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 10). *** P < 0.001 significantly different from the CD group. Means without a common letter differ between HFD, AM-Ex 50, AM-Ex 100, and AM-Ex 200 groups at P < 0.05.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of AM-Ex administration on the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in epididymal adipose tissue of HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice. AM-Ex was administered by oral gavage for eight weeks while the mice were fed the HFD. The total RNA in epididymal adipose tissue was isolated, reverse transcribed, and real-time PCR was conducted. The amount of each messenger RNA (mRNA) was normalized to the amount of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA and expressed relative to the CD group. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 10). ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001 significantly different from the CD group. Means without a common letter differ between HFD, AM-Ex 50, AM-Ex 100, and AM-Ex 200 groups at P < 0.05.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Effect of AM-Ex administration on the expression of adipogenesis-related genes in epididymal adipose tissue of HFD-fed C57BL/6N mice. AM-Ex was administered by oral gavage for eight weeks while the mice were fed the HFD. The total RNA in epididymal adipose tissue was isolated, reverse transcribed, and real-time PCR was conducted. The amount of each mRNA was normalized to the amount of GAPDH mRNA and expressed relative to the CD group. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 10). *** P < 0.001 significantly different from the CD group. Means without a common letter differ between HFD, AM-Ex 50, AM-Ex 100, and AM-Ex 200 groups at P < 0.05.

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