Induced polygenic variations through γ -rays irradiation and selection of novel genotype in chamomile ( Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert)

Int J Radiat Biol. 2019 Sep;95(9):1242-1250. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1625460. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Abstract

Purpose: To develop elite mutants in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert) for increasing the quantity and quality of essential oil rich in acetylenic compound (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester by applying γ -rays irradiation. Molecular and chemical analysis was performed for ithe dentification/differentiation of mutant genotype. Materials and methods: Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert) variety Vallary seeds were irradiated by applying γ -rays irradiation at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and1000 Gy doses at a dose rate of 55 Gy/min and mutants were isolated and analyzed for the quantity and quality of essential oil. The oil was found to be rich in acetylenic compound (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester and the results obtained were validated using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either Flame Ionization detection (GC-FID) or mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: The selected mutant SELM-1 (Selection Mutant-1) showed the production potential of 7.00-7.50 q ha-1 dry flowers and 6.00-6.50 kg ha-1 essential oil yield. Essential oil of mutant SELM-1 contained in [(2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester] (76-80%) useful in cosmetic, perfumery, and pharmaceutical industries. Conclusion:γ -rays irradiation method is a very efficient mutation breeding method for chamomile crop. GC-FID or GC-MS and NMR methods are found to be the most powerful methods for screening of essential oil chemical compounds isolated from the mutants. The novel mutant (SELM-1) is very promising in terms of high flower and essential oil yield rich in acetylenic compound (2Z,8Z)-matricaria acid methyl ester (76-80%), hence, it was released as variety in Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant (CIMAP), Lucknow U.P. (India) named as CIM-Ujjwala for commercial cultivation.

Keywords: Chemotype; flavonoids; γ-irradiation; matricaria acid methyl ester; mutagenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chamomile / genetics*
  • Chamomile / metabolism
  • Chamomile / radiation effects*
  • Flowers / metabolism
  • Flowers / radiation effects
  • Gamma Rays / adverse effects*
  • Genetic Variation / radiation effects*
  • Genotype*
  • Oils, Volatile / metabolism

Substances

  • Oils, Volatile