Background: Grape phytochemicals prevent intestine-related and subsequent other inflammatory diseases. Phytochemicals and vitamin D are useful for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Phytochemicals is the generic name for terpenoids, carotenoids, and flavonoids that consist of a variety of chemicals contained in vegetables and fruits. There are a variety of grape cultivars that contain many kinds of phytochemicals in their skin and seeds. Grape phytochemicals including Grape Seed Extracts (GSE) have already been used to maintain healthy condition through manipulating inflammatory responses by decreasing the expression of inflammation-related factors.
Discussion: Grape phytochemicals mainly consist of a variety of chemicals that include terpenoid (oleanolic acid), carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein), and flavonoids: flavon-3-ols (quercetin), flavan-3-ols (catechins), anthocyanins, oligomers and polymers (tannins and proanthocyanidins), and resveratrol. Phytochemicals improve the dysbiosis (gut microbiota complication) induced by metabolic syndrome and regulate inflammatory diseases induced by TNF-α production. Once absorbed, flavonoids change into glucuronide-form, move into the bloodstream and reach the inflammatory sites including liver, lung, and sites of arteriosclerosis, where they become active. Furthermore, oleanolic acid acts on TGR5 - the cholic acid receptor, as an agonist of cholic acid. These anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals have been proven by the experimental animal studies and the clinical trials.
Conclusion: It is expected the new health food products will be created from grape skins and seeds since grape phytochemicals participate in the prevention of inflammatory diseases like intestine-related inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease; Oleanolic acid; Phytochemicals; Quercetin; TNF-α; Treg (Regulatory T cells); microbiota..
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