Purpose: To analyze outcomes of posterior urethroplasty following pelvic fracture urethral injuries (PFUI) and to determine risk factors for surgical complexity and success.
Methods: Patients who underwent posterior urethroplasty following PFUI were identified in the Trauma and Urologic Reconstructive Network of Surgeons (TURNS) database. Demographics, injury patterns, management strategies, and prior interventions were evaluated. Risk factors for surgical failure and the impact of ancillary urethral lengthening maneuvers (corporal splitting, pubectomy and supracrural rerouting) were evaluated.
Results: Of the 436 posterior urethroplasties identified, 122 were following PFUI. 83 (68%) patients were acutely managed with suprapubic tubes, while 39 (32%) underwent early endoscopic realignment. 16 (13%) patients underwent pelvic artery embolization in the acute setting. 116 cases (95%) were completed via a perineal approach, while 6 (5%) were performed via an abdominoperineal approach. The need for one or more ancillary maneuvers to gain urethral length occurred in 4 (36%) patients. Of these, 44 (36%) received corporal splitting, 16 (13%) partial or complete pubectomy, and 2 (2%) supracrural rerouting. Younger patients, those with longer distraction defects, and those with a history of angioembolization were more likely to require ancillary maneuvers. 111 patients (91%) did not require repeat intervention during follow-up. Angioembolization (p = 0.03) and longer distraction defects (p = 0.01) were associated with failure.
Conclusions: Posterior urethroplasty provides excellent success rates for patients following PFUI. Pelvic angioembolization and increased defect length are associated with increased surgical complexity and risk of failure. Surgeons should be prepared to implement ancillary maneuvers when indicated to achieve a tension-free anastomosis.
Keywords: Angioembolization; Distraction defect; Pelvic fracture urethral injury; Posterior urethroplasty; Urethral stricture; Urotrauma.