The effect of SANGUINATE ® (PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin bovine) on cardiopulmonary bypass functionality using a bovine whole blood model of normovolemic hemodilution

Perfusion. 2020 Jan;35(1):19-25. doi: 10.1177/0267659119850681. Epub 2019 May 30.


Background: Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass carries a high risk of bleeding and need for blood transfusion. Blood administration is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Perioperatively, strategies are often employed to reduce blood transfusions in high-risk patients or in situations where blood transfusion is contraindicated. Normovolemic hemodilution is a blood conservation technique used during cardiac surgery that involves replacement of blood with fluids. SANGUINATE® (PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin bovine) is a novel hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier that can deliver oxygen effectively to tissues in the presence of severe hypoxia. The use of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier during hemodilution may augment tissue oxygen delivery and reduce blood transfusion.

Methods: Six standardized cardiopulmonary bypass runs simulating normovolemic hemodilution using varying proportions of bovine whole blood and SANGUINATE were performed. Pump speed, flow rate, line pressures, hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and degree of anticoagulation were assessed at regular intervals. Membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters were inspected for evidence of clotting following each run.

Results: Increases in the pressure drop across the membrane oxygenator were detected during runs 5 and 6. Median activated clotting time values were able to be maintained at goal during the runs, and SANGUINATE did not appear to be thrombogenic. Hemoglobin concentration decreased following the addition of SANGUINATE. Oxygenation was maintained during all runs that included SANGUINATE.

Conclusion: SANGUINATE does not impact the performance of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit in a bovine whole blood model. The results support further evaluation of SANGUINATE in the setting of normovolemic hemodilution and cardiopulmonary bypass.

Keywords: SANGUINATE; cardiopulmonary bypass; hemodilution; hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier; oxygenators.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Blood Substitutes / pharmacology*
  • Carboxyhemoglobin / pharmacology*
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass* / adverse effects
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass* / instrumentation
  • Cattle
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation* / adverse effects
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation* / instrumentation
  • Hemodilution*
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Oxygenators, Membrane
  • Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacology*
  • Proof of Concept Study
  • Thrombosis / blood
  • Thrombosis / etiology
  • Thrombosis / prevention & control
  • Time Factors


  • Anticoagulants
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Substitutes
  • PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin bovine
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Carboxyhemoglobin
  • Oxygen