Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and metabolic syndrome in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population in Dalian, northeast China: A cross-sectional study

J Diabetes Investig. 2020 Jan;11(1):184-191. doi: 10.1111/jdi.13086. Epub 2019 Jun 21.


Aims/introduction: To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH]D) concentrations and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

Methods: The present study included 2,764 participants (aged >50 years). The joint interim statement was used for the standard definition of MetS. Serum 25-(OH)D concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The study participants were categorized into quartiles based on serum 25-(OH)D concentrations, and the quartiles were calculated for the differences using anova and the χ2 -test for continuous and categorical data, respectively. A logistic regression analysis model was applied to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each quartile of serum 25-(OH)D concentrations compared with the highest quartile.

Results: Serum 25-(OH)D levels were markedly lower in men in the MetS group than in those without MetS. We observed a negative correlation between the higher quartiles of serum 25-(OH)D levels and the presence of MetS among men. The correlation between serum 25-(OH)D levels and the prevalence of MetS persisted even after adjusting for potential confounders, including age, cigarette smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, low-density lipoprotein, creatinine and total serum cholesterol. Adjusted odds ratios of MetS in the second through fourth compared with the lowest quartile for serum 25-(OH)D levels were 0.93 (95% CI 0.54-1.59), 0.89 (95% CI 0.50-1.56) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.28-0.84), respectively.

Conclusions: Decreased serum 25-(OH)D level is significantly correlated with MetS in middle-aged men.

Keywords: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D; Metabolic syndrome; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Asian People / statistics & numerical data*
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*


  • Biomarkers
  • Lipids
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D