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Review
. 2019 Jun;249:1091-1105.
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.062. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Lead-based Paints and Children's PVC Toys Are Potential Sources of Domestic Lead Poisoning - A Review

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Review

Lead-based Paints and Children's PVC Toys Are Potential Sources of Domestic Lead Poisoning - A Review

Shukuru Yusufu Njati et al. Environ Pollut. .

Abstract

Lead (Pb) both in paints and children's Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys is a major public health concern which has attracted attention of the international community. Concentrations of Pb both in lead-based paints and children's PVC toys have been assessed through various studies across the globe. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to summarize the results reported in these studies and provide some comprehension on their implications to human health for law enforcement as well as for awareness raising to the general public. Highlights on identified gaps have been provided to pave ways for further research interventions in order to establish comprehensive information on the subject. Regardless of regulatory limits on the content of lead, both in paints and children's PVC toys existing in different countries in the world, some of the reviewed articles have revealed significant levels of lead in these two items far above the permissible limits. High lead levels in paints have been recorded in China (116,200 ppm), Cameroon (500,000 ppm), South Africa (189,000 ppm), Tanzania (120,862.1 ppm), Uganda (150,000 ppm), Thailand (505,716 ppm) and Brazil (170,258.4 ppm) just to mention a few. Lead poisoning cases in children have been reported in several countries including France, Morocco, South Africa and United States. Countries where high levels of lead in children's PVC toys have been recounted include; China (860,000 ppm), South Africa (145,000 ppm), United States (22,550 ppm), Thailand (4,486.11 ppm), Palestine (6,036 ppm) and India (2,104 ppm). Awareness raising among parents is vital to impart them with knowledge on the matter so that they can take strenuous measures to protect their children from lead poisoning emanating from playing with toys and paint dust. Law enforcement on phasing out lead-based paints and control of lead content in children's PVC toys worldwide is also highly recommended.

Keywords: Carcinogenic; Children toy; Lead-based paint; Neurotoxin; Regulation on lead-based paint.

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