Zebras in Foreskin Dermatopathology: A Review

J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2019 Jul;23(3):235-240. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0000000000000478.


Objectives: The aim of the study was to review uncommon foreskin dermatopathology conditions clinically and pathologically.

Methods: A database search of PubMed and Google Scholar were extracted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2019, using the search terms "foreskin," "prepuce," "penis," "pathology," "dermatology," and "rare." The search was limited to "humans" and "dermatopathology." Full article texts were reviewed. Reference lists were screened for additional articles. Patient details (diagnosis, dermatopathology, treatment, and follow-up if available) were extracted. We excluded articles written in the non-English language, unusual variants of common conditions, and cases of common dermatologic conditions.

Results: A list of 369 articles was identified and another screening identified 30 articles for rare foreskin pathologies. Those are divided into categories based on the following etiologies: (a) benign, including congenital (e.g., aposthia), infectious (graft versus host disease and histoplasma), autoimmune (Crohn's disease and pyoderma gangrenosum), and benign neoplasms (neurofibroma, apocrine hidrocystoma, verruciform xanthoma, porokeratosis, penile cutaneous horn, localized amyloidosis) and (b) malignancies, including primary (myeloid sarcoma, basal cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), and metastasis.

Conclusions: We reviewed and discussed unusual benign and malignant dermatopathology conditions that can affect the foreskin.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Autoimmune Diseases / epidemiology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / pathology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dermatitis / epidemiology
  • Dermatitis / pathology*
  • Foreskin / abnormalities*
  • Foreskin / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Penile Neoplasms / pathology*