Norovirus Attachment and Entry

Viruses. 2019 May 30;11(6):495. doi: 10.3390/v11060495.


Human norovirus is a major human pathogen causing the majority of cases of viral gastroenteritis globally. Viral entry is the first step of the viral life cycle and is a significant determinant of cell tropism, host range, immune interactions, and pathogenesis. Bile salts and histo-blood group antigens are key mediators of norovirus entry; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these molecules promote infection and the identity of a potential human norovirus receptor remain unknown. Recently, there have been several important advances in norovirus entry biology including the identification of CD300lf as the receptor for murine norovirus and of the role of the minor capsid protein VP2 in viral genome release. Here, we will review the current understanding about norovirus attachment and entry and highlight important future directions.

Keywords: CD300lf; JAM-A; bile salts; histo-blood group antigens; murine norovirus; norovirus entry; viral tropism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Caliciviridae Infections / virology*
  • Capsid Proteins
  • Genome, Viral
  • Host Specificity
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Norovirus / pathogenicity
  • Norovirus / physiology*
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism
  • Viral Structural Proteins
  • Viral Tropism*
  • Virus Attachment*
  • Virus Internalization*


  • Blood Group Antigens
  • CLM-1 protein, mouse
  • Capsid Proteins
  • Receptors, Immunologic
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Viral Structural Proteins