Investigation of Biological Activities of Wild Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn. Var. Abbreviata Ser.)

Biomolecules. 2019 May 30;9(6):211. doi: 10.3390/biom9060211.


Wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. var. Abbreviata Ser.) is a wild edible variety of M. charantia, often used in folk medicine. In this study, the biological activities of its extract and fractions were investigated in vitro. It was found that ethyl acetate (EA) fraction exhibited high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.43 ± 0.04 mg/mL, while the chloroform (CF), EA, and n-butanol (Bu) fractions had strong 2,2-azinobis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)+ scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.36 ± 0.04 mg/mL, 0.35 ± 0.02 mg/mL, and 0.35 ± 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the EA and Bu fractions exhibited the highest protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the EA fraction was effective in the inhibition of enzyme α-amylase activity with an IC50 value of 0.27 ± 0.029 mg/mL. Finally, it was observed that the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator, was significantly reduced from LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by the ethanol extract (ET) and the EA fraction. Therefore, wild bitter melon could be considered as a promising biomaterial for the development of pharmaceutical products.

Keywords: DPPH; Momordica charantia; nitric oxide; wild bitter melon; α-amylase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biphenyl Compounds / chemistry
  • DNA Damage
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Inhibitory Concentration 50
  • Mice
  • Momordica charantia / chemistry*
  • Picrates / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • alpha-Amylases / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • alpha-Amylases