A multi-source data fusion approach to assess spatial-temporal variability and delineate homogeneous zones: A use case in a table grape vineyard in Greece

Sci Total Environ. 2019 Sep 20;684:155-163. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.324. Epub 2019 May 22.


Precision Viticulture requires very fine-scale spatial and temporal resolution to assess quite accurately variation in a vineyard. Many studies have used proximal sensing technology and spatial-temporal data analysis to characterize the local variation of plant vigour over time. The objective of this study was to present the potential of multivariate geostatistical techniques to fuse multi-temporal data from a multi-band radiometer and a geophysical sensor with different support for delineation of a vineyard into homogeneous zones, to be submitted to differential agricultural management. The study was conducted in a commercial table grape vineyard located in southern Greece during the years 2016 and 2017. Soil electrical conductivity was measured using an EM38 sensor, while Crop Circle canopy sensor, with the sensor located at 1.5 m height from the soil surface and 1.2 m horizontally from the vines, was used for scanning the side canopy area at different crop stages. The temporal multi-sensor data were analysed with the geostatistical data fusion techniques of block cokriging, to produce thematic maps, and factorial block cokriging to estimate synthetic scale-dependent regionalized factors. The factor maps at different scales are characterised by random variability with several micro-structures of different plant and soil properties, which leads to difficulties in delineating macro-areas with homogeneous features. In such conditions, high resolution VRA technology should be preferred to management by homogeneous zones for precision viticulture. The results have shown the potential of the proposed approach to deal with multi-source data in precision viticulture. However, further statistical research on data fusion of the outcomes from different sensors is still needed.

Keywords: Factorial block cokriging; Geostatistics; Precision viticulture; Proximal canopy sensing; Proximal soil sensing.

MeSH terms

  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Monitoring / instrumentation*
  • Farms*
  • Greece
  • Soil / chemistry*
  • Spatio-Temporal Analysis
  • Vitis* / growth & development


  • Soil