Immunometabolism around the Clock

Trends Mol Med. 2019 Jul;25(7):612-625. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2019.04.013. Epub 2019 May 29.


Almost every cell has a molecular clock, which controls gene expression on a 24-h cycle, providing circadian rhythmicity. An example of a circadian behaviour common to most organisms is the feeding/fasting cycle, which shapes whole-body metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms by which the clock controls cellular metabolism have only recently become clear. The molecular clock and related metabolic pathways are also key drivers of immunity. Thus, a natural convergence of circadian biology, metabolism, and immunology has emerged to form a new field that we term 'circadian immunometabolism'. Expanding our understanding of this field will provide insights into chronic conditions such as obesity, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and arthritis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Clocks / physiology*
  • Circadian Clocks / physiology
  • Circadian Rhythm / physiology
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Health Status
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunomodulation*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism