Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a well-known extraarticular feature of spondyloarthritis (SpA). The aims of this study were to evaluate factors associated with IBD and incidence over 5 years of followup in the DESIR cohort.
Methods: DESIR is a prospective observational cohort of patients with recent-onset inflammatory back pain suggestive of axial SpA. All available variables in the database were compared between patients with and without IBD at baseline and 5 years, and occurrence over 5 years of followup, with uni- and then multivariable analysis.
Results: At baseline, of 708 patients, 35 had IBD (prevalence 4.94%, CI 95% 3.3-6.5). IBD was associated (multivariable) with history of uveitis, levels of Dickkopf-1, and tumor necrosis factor, but not with phenotypic presentation (peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, dactylitis, uveitis) or baseline serum levels of other cytokines. At 5 years, 480 patients were analyzed, 58 with IBD. IBD was associated (multivariable) with fulfillment of modified New York criteria, sick leave, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and smoking. There was no association with magnetic resonance imaging scores, enthesitis, psoriasis, and bone mineral density. Twenty-three incident cases of IBD were recorded: estimated occurrence rate of 0.95/100 (95% CI 0.57-1.35) patient-years (PY). Incidence of IBD is associated (multivariable) with HLA-B27 (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.59), fulfillment of modified New York criteria (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.85-6.08), and familial history of IBD (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.62-6.77).
Conclusion: In early SpA, IBD occurs with an incidence of 1/100 PY, and is associated with poor outcome, familial history of IBD, absence of HLA-B27, and fulfillment of modified New York criteria.
Keywords: EPIDEMIOLOGY; GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES; INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE; SPONDYLOARTHRITIS.