Mutational processes giving rise to lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) in non-smokers remain elusive. We analyzed 138 LADC whole genomes, including 83 cases with minimal contribution of smoking-associated mutational signature. Genomic rearrangements were not correlated with smoking-associated mutations and frequently served as driver events of smoking-signature-low LADCs. Complex genomic rearrangements, including chromothripsis and chromoplexy, generated 74% of known fusion oncogenes, including EML4-ALK, CD74-ROS1, and KIF5B-RET. Unlike other collateral rearrangements, these fusion-oncogene-associated rearrangements were frequently copy-number-balanced, representing a genomic signature of early oncogenesis. Analysis of mutation timing revealed that fusions and point mutations of canonical oncogenes were often acquired in the early decades of life. During a long latency, cancer-related genes were disrupted or amplified by complex rearrangements. The genomic landscape was different between subgroups-EGFR-mutant LADCs had frequent whole-genome duplications with p53 mutations, whereas fusion-oncogene-driven LADCs had frequent SETD2 mutations. Our study highlights LADC oncogenesis driven by endogenous mutational processes.
Keywords: SETD2; balanced rearrangement; chromoplexy; chromothripsis; complex genomic rearrangement; fusion oncogene; lung adenocarcinoma; p53; tumor initiation; whole-genome duplication.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.