Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been recognized as an emerging nosocomial pathogen in invasive infections of immunocompromised, severely debilitated patients with significant underlying illnesses. The first-choice drug in these infections is sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP), and resistance to this antimicrobial is a daunting challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. maltophilia bacteremia and SMX/TMP-resistance levels at a tertiary-care university hospital. A total of 175 episodes of S. maltophilia bacteremia were identified (2008-2012: n = 82, 2013-2017: n = 93; p = 0.061), 52% of affected patients were 60 years of age, and had recent surgery, severe injuries or underlying conditions (malignant hematologic diseases and solid tumors) in their history. Sixteen percent of isolates were resistant to SMX/TMP (2008-2012: n = 13.8%, 2013-2017: n = 17.2%; p = 0.076), and out of the resistant strains, 32.7% were also resistant to levofloxacin and colistin. Our findings on the SMX/TMP-resistance were similar to global literature data.
Keywords: SMX/TMP; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; bacteremia; bloodstream infection; literature review; retrospective; sumetrolim-resistance.