Structuring of matter with nanoobjects allows one to generate soliton-like light bundles with extreme characteristics-temporal duration and spatial dimensions. On the other hand, structuring of light gives the possibility to form light bundles with complicated internal structure; their topology could be used for information coding similar to that in self-replicating RNA molecules carrying genetic code. Here we review the both variants of structuring. In the first variant, we consider a linear molecular chain and organic film interacting resonantly with laser radiation. Demonstrated are optical bistability, switching waves, and dissipative solitons, whose sizes for molecular J-aggregates can reach the nanometer range. We also discuss some theoretical approaches to take into account multi-particle interaction and correlations between molecules. In the second variant, light structuring in large-size laser medium with saturable amplification and absorption is achieved by preparation of the initial field distribution with a number of closed and unclosed vortex lines where the field vanishes. Various types of topological solitons, parameter domains of their stability, and transformation of the solitons with slow variation of the scheme parameters are presented.
Keywords: dissipative optical solitons; lasers with saturable absorber; molecular aggregates; switching waves; topological solitons.