Pathogenesis, Early Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 2;20(11):2712. doi: 10.3390/ijms20112712.


Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) refers to the damages to the liver and its functions due to alcohol overconsumption. It consists of fatty liver/steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, steatohepatitis, chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease are extremely complicated due to the involvement of immune cells, adipose tissues, and genetic diversity. Clinically, the diagnosis of ALD is not yet well developed. Therefore, the number of patients in advanced stages has increased due to the failure of proper early detection and treatment. At present, abstinence and nutritional therapy remain the conventional therapeutic interventions for ALD. Moreover, the therapies which target the TNF receptor superfamily, hormones, antioxidant signals, and MicroRNAs are used as treatments for ALD. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining attention as a potential therapeutic target of ALD. Therefore, in this review, we have summarized the current understandings of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ALD. Moreover, we also discuss the various existing treatment strategies while focusing on promising therapeutic approaches for ALD.

Keywords: ALD; MSCs; diagnose; pathogenesis; phytochemical.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Management
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / diagnosis*
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / pathology
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / therapy*
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy