The altered expression of miRNAs has been linked with neocarcinogenesis or the development of human malignancies including melanoma. Of significance, multiple clinical studies have documented that distinct sets of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be utilized as prognostic biomarkers for cancer development or predict the outcomes of treatment responses. To that end, an in-depth validation of such differentially expressed miRNAs is necessary in diverse settings of cancer patients in order to devise novel approaches to control tumor growth and/or enhance the efficacy of clinically-relevant therapeutic options. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity and sophisticated regulation of miRNAs, the precise delineation of their cellular targets could also be explored to design personalized medicine. Given the significance of miRNAs in regulating several key cellular processes of tumor cells including cell cycle progression and apoptosis, we review the findings of such miRNAs implicated in melanoma tumorigenesis. Understanding the novel mechanistic insights of such miRNAs will be useful for developing diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers or devising future therapeutic intervention for malignant melanoma.
Keywords: Melanoma; Signaling pathways; miRNA.
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