The Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Clinical Symptom, Weight Loss, Glycemic Control, Lipid and Hormonal Profiles, Biomarkers of Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019 Jun 4. doi: 10.1007/s12602-019-09559-0. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is to determine the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation on clinical symptoms, weight loss, glycemic control, lipid and hormonal profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Eligible studies were systematically searched from Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science databases until January 2019. Cochran (Q) and I-square statistics were used to measure heterogeneity among included studies. Data were pooled by using random-effect model and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Eleven articles were included in this meta-analysis. Probiotic supplementation significantly decreased weight (SMD - 0.30; 95% CI, - 0.53, - 0.07; P = 0.01), body mass index (BMI) (SMD - 0.29; 95% CI, - 0.54, - 0.03; P = 0.02), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (SMD - 0.26; 95% CI, - 0.45, - 0.07; P < 0.001), insulin (SMD - 0.52; 95% CI, - 0.81, - 0.24; P < 0.001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (SMD - 0.53; 95% CI, - 0.79, - 0.26; P < 0.001), triglycerides (SMD - 0.69; 95% CI, - 0.99, - 0.39; P < 0.001), VLDL-cholesterol (SMD - 0.69; 95% CI, - 0.99, - 0.39; P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD - 1.26; 95% CI, - 2.14, - 0.37; P < 0.001), malondialdehyde (MDA) (SMD - 0.90; 95% CI, - 1.16, - 0.63; P < 0.001), hirsutism (SMD - 0.58; 95% CI, - 1.01, - 0.16; P < 0.001), and total testosterone levels (SMD - 0.58; 95% CI, - 0.82, - 0.34; P < 0.001), and also increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (SMD 0.41; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.70; P < 0.01), nitric oxide (NO) (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.08, 0.59; P = 0.01), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (SMD 0.64; 95% CI, 0.38, 0.90; P < 0.001), glutathione (GSH) (SMD 0.26; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.52; P = 0.04), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels (SMD 0.46; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.85; P = 0.01). Probiotic supplementation may result in an improvement in weight, BMI, FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, CRP, MDA, hirsutism, total testosterone, QUICKI, NO, TAC, GSH, and SHBG but did not affect dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, and total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels in patients with PCOS.

Keywords: Glycemic control; Inflammation; Lipids profiles; Meta-analysis; Oxidative markers; Polycystic ovary syndrome; Probiotic; Weight loss.