Background E-cigarettes are popular for smoking cessation and as an alternative to combustible cigarettes. We assess the association between e-cigarette use and having had a myocardial infarction ( MI ) and whether reverse causality can explain the observed cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use and MI . Methods and Results Cross-sectional analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Wave 1 for association between e-cigarette use and having had and MI . Longitudinal analysis of Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Waves 1 and 2 for reverse causality analysis. Logistic regression was performed to determine the associations between e-cigarette initiation and MI , adjusting for cigarette smoking, demographic and clinical variables. Every-day (adjusted odds ratio, 2.25, 95% CI : 1.23-4.11) and some-day (1.99, 95% CI : 1.11-3.58) e-cigarette use were independently associated with increased odds of having had an MI with a significant dose-response ( P<0.0005). Odds ratio for daily dual use of both products was 6.64 compared with a never cigarette smoker who never used e-cigarettes. Having had a myocardial infarction at Wave 1 did not predict e-cigarette use at Wave 2 ( P>0.62), suggesting that reverse causality cannot explain the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use and MI observed at Wave 1. Conclusions Some-day and every-day e-cigarette use are associated with increased risk of having had a myocardial infarction, adjusted for combustible cigarette smoking. Effect of e-cigarettes are similar as conventional cigarette and dual use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes at the same time is risker than using either product alone.
Keywords: epidemiology; e‐cigarettes; myocardial infarction; smoking.