Trends in resistance to antiretroviral drugs for HIV-1 may inform clinical support and drug development. We evaluated drug resistance mutation (DRM) trends for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), protease inhibitor (PI), and integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) in a large U.S. reference laboratory database. DRMs with a Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database mutation score ≥10 from deidentified subtype B NRTI/NNRTI/PI specimens (2006-2017; >10,000/year) and INSTI specimens (2010-2017; >1,000/year) were evaluated. Sequences with NRTI, NNRTI, or PI single- or multiclass DRMs declined from 48.9% to 39.3%. High-level dual- and triple-class resistance declined from 43.3% (2006) to 17.1% (2017), while sequences with only single-class DRMs increased from 40.0% to 52.9%. The prevalence of DRMs associated with earlier treatment regimens declined, while prevalence of some DRMs associated with newer regimens increased. M184V/I decreased from 48.3% to 29.4%. K103N/S/T declined from 42.5% in 2012 to 36.4% in 2017. Rilpivirine and etravirine DRMs E138A/Q/R and E138K increased from 4.9% and 0.4% to 9.7% and 1.7%, respectively. Sequences with ≥1 darunavir DRM declined from 18.1% to 4.8% by 2017. INSTI DRM Q148H/K/R declined from 39.3% (2010) to 13.8% (2017). Prevalence of elvitegravir-associated DRMs T66A/I/K, E92Q, S147G, and the dolutegravir-associated DRM R263K increased. For a subset of patients with serial testing, 50% (2,646/5,290) of those who initially had no reportable DRM subsequently developed ≥1 DRM for NRTI/NNRTI/PI and 49.7% (159/320) for INSTI. These trends may inform the need for baseline genotypic resistance testing. The detection of treatment-emergent DRMs in serially tested patients confirms the value of genotypic testing following virologic failure.
Keywords: HIV-1; antiretroviral drugs; drug resistance mutations; integrase; protease; reverse transcriptase.