Recent studies have demonstrated an array of stem cell-derived, self-organizing miniature organs, termed organoids, that replicate the key structural and functional characteristics of their in vivo counterparts. As organoid technology opens up new frontiers of research in biomedicine, there is an emerging need for innovative engineering approaches for the production, control, and analysis of organoids and their microenvironment. In this Review, we explore organ-on-a-chip technology as a platform to fulfill this need and examine how this technology may be leveraged to address major technical challenges in organoid research. We also discuss emerging opportunities and future obstacles for the development and application of organoid-on-a-chip technology.
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