DUOX Defects and Their Roles in Congenital Hypothyroidism

Methods Mol Biol. 2019:1982:667-693. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9424-3_37.

Abstract

Extracellular hydrogen peroxide is required for thyroperoxidase-mediated thyroid hormone synthesis in the follicular lumen of the thyroid gland. Among the NADPH oxidases, dual oxidases, DUOX1 and DUOX2, constitute a distinct subfamily initially identified as thyroid oxidases, based on their level of expression in the thyroid. Despite their high sequence similarity, the two isoforms present distinct regulations, tissue expression, and catalytic functions. Inactivating mutations in many of the genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis cause thyroid dyshormonogenesis associated with iodide organification defect. This chapter provides an overview of the genetic alterations in DUOX2 and its maturation factor, DUOXA2, causing inherited severe hypothyroidism that clearly demonstrate the physiological implication of this oxidase in thyroid hormonogenesis. Mutations in the DUOX2 gene have been described in permanent but also in transient forms of congenital hypothyroidism. Moreover, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the high phenotypic variability associated with altered DUOX2 function is not directly related to the number of inactivated DUOX2 alleles, suggesting the existence of other pathophysiological factors. The presence of two DUOX isoforms and their corresponding maturation factors in the same organ could certainly constitute an efficient redundant mechanism to maintain sufficient H2O2 supply for iodide organification. Many of the reported DUOX2 missense variants have not been functionally characterized, their clinical impact in the observed phenotype remaining unresolved, especially in mild transient congenital hypothyroidism. DUOX2 function should be carefully evaluated using an in vitro assay wherein (1) DUOXA2 is co-expressed, (2) H2O2 production is activated, (3) and DUOX2 membrane expression is precisely analyzed.

Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism; DUOX; DUOX maturation factor; DUOXA; Dual oxidase; H2O2; Inherited disease; NADPH oxidase; Thyroid.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Catalysis
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / diagnosis
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / genetics*
  • Congenital Hypothyroidism / metabolism*
  • Dual Oxidases / deficiency*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Genetic Association Studies*
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational

Substances

  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Dual Oxidases
  • DUOX1 protein, human