Recent reports show that protein kinase A (PKA), but not exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), acts in a cell autonomous manner to constitutively reduce the angiogenic sprouting capacity of murine and human endothelial cells. Specificity in the cellular actions of individual cAMP-effectors can be achieved when a cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme acts locally to control the "pool" of cAMP that activates the cAMP-effector. Here, we examined whether PDEs coordinate the actions of PKA during endothelial cell sprouting. Inhibiting each of the cAMP-hydrolyzing PDEs expressed in human endothelial cells revealed that phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibition with cilostamide reduced angiogenic sprouting in vitro, while inhibitors of PDE2 and PDE4 family enzymes had no such effect. Identifying a critical role for PDE3B in the anti-angiogenic effects of cilostamide, silencing this PDE3 variant, but not PDE3A, markedly impaired sprouting. Importantly, using both in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis, we show the hypo-sprouting phenotype induced by PDE3 inhibition or PDE3B silencing was reversed by PKA inhibition. Examination of the individual cellular events required for sprouting revealed that PDE3B and PKA each regulated angiogenic sprouting by controlling the invasive capacity of endothelial cells, more specifically, by regulating podosome rosette biogenesis and matrix degradation. In support of the idea that PDE3B acts to inhibit angiogenic sprouting by limiting PKA-mediated reductions in active cdc42, the effects of PDE3B and/or PKA on angiogenic sprouting were negated in cells with reduced cdc42 expression or activity. Since PDE3B and PKA were co-localized in a perinuclear region in human ECs, could be co-immunoprecipitated from lysates of these cells, and silencing PDE3B activated the perinuclear pool of PKA in these cells, we conclude that PDE3B-mediated hydrolysis of cAMP acts to limit the anti-angiogenic potential of PKA in ECs.
Keywords: Endothelial cells; Phosphodiesterase 3B; Protein kinase A; Sprouting angiogenesis; cdc42.
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