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Review
. 2019 Jul;309(5):331-337.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2019.05.009. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Biogenesis and Function of the Autotransporter Adhesins YadA, Intimin and Invasin

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Review

Biogenesis and Function of the Autotransporter Adhesins YadA, Intimin and Invasin

Karolin Leibiger et al. Int J Med Microbiol. .

Abstract

Bacteria often express numerous virulence factors. These virulence factors make them successful pathogens, by e.g. mediating attachment to host cells and thereby facilitating persistence or invasion, or by contributing to the evasion of the host immune system to allow proliferation and spread within the host and in the environment. The site of first contact of Gram negative bacteria with the host is the bacterial outer membrane (OM). Consisting of an asymmetrical lipid bilayer with phospholipids forming the inner, and lipopolysaccharides forming the outer leaflet, the OM harbors numerous integral membrane proteins that are almost exclusively β-barrel proteins. One distinct family of OM β-barrel proteins strongly linked to bacterial virulence are the autotransporter (AT) proteins. During the last years huge progress has been made to better understand the mechanisms underlying the insertion of AT proteins into the OM and also AT function for interaction with the host. This review shortly summarizes our current knowledge about outer membrane protein (OMP) and more specifically AT biogenesis and function. We focused on the AT proteins that we haved studied in most detail: i.e. the Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and invasin of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) as well as its homolog intimin (Int) expressed by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. In addition, this review provides a short outlook about how we could possibly use this knowledge to fight infection.

Keywords: Autotransporter; BAM complex; Virulence; β-Barrel.

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