In the adult subependymal zone (SEZ), neural stem cells (NSCs) apically contacting the lateral ventricle on activation generate progenitors proliferating at the niche basal side. We here show that Tailless (TLX) coordinates NSC activation and basal progenitor proliferation by repressing the NOTCH effector Hes1. Consistent with this, besides quiescence Hes1 expression also increases on Tlx mutation. Since HES1 levels are higher at the apical SEZ, NOTCH activation is increased in Tlx-/- NSCs, but not in surrounding basal progenitors. Underscoring the causative relationship between higher HES1/NOTCH and increased quiescence, downregulation of Hes1 only in mutant NSCs normalizes NOTCH activation and resumes proliferation and neurogenesis not only in NSCs, but especially in basal progenitors. Since pharmacological blockade of NOTCH signaling also promotes proliferation of basal progenitors, we conclude that TLX, by repressing Hes1 expression, counteracts quiescence and NOTCH activation in NSCs, thereby relieving NOTCH-mediated lateral inhibition of proliferation in basal progenitors.
Keywords: Hes1; Mash1; NOTCH signaling; Tlx; neural stem cells; neurogenesis; quiescence; subependymal zone.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.