Disruptions in multiple neurobiological pathways and neuromolecular processes have been widely implicated in the etiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a complex, progressive, and ultimately lethal neurological disorder whose current incidence, both domestically and globally, is reaching epidemic proportions. While only a few percent of all AD cases appear to have a strong genetic or familial component, the major form of this disease, known as idiopathic or sporadic AD, displays a multi-factorial pathology and represents one of the most complex and perplexing neurological disorders known. More effective and innovative pharmacological strategies for the successful intervention and management of AD might be expected: (i) to arise from strategic-treatments that simultaneously address multiple interrelated AD targets that are directed at the initiation, development, and/or propagation of this disease and (ii) those that target the "neuropathological core" of the AD process at early or upstream stages of AD. This "Perspectives paper" will review current research involving microRNA (miRNA)-mediated, messenger RNA (mRNA)-targeted gene expression pathways in sporadic AD and address the potential implementation of evolving anti-microRNA (AM) strategies in the amelioration and clinical management of AD. This novel-therapeutic approach: (i) incorporates a system involving the restoration of multiple miRNA-regulated mRNA-targets via the use of selectively-stabilized AM species; and (ii) that via implementation of synthetic AMs, the abundance of only relatively small-families of miRNAs need be modulated or neutralized to re-establish neural-homeostasis in the AD-affected brain. In doing so, these strategic approaches will jointly and interactively address multiple AD-associated processes such as the disruption of synaptic communication, defects in amyloid peptide clearance and amyloidogenesis, tau pathology, deficits in neurotrophic support, alterations in the innate immune response, and the proliferation of neuroinflammatory signaling.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; messenger RNA (mRNA); miRNA-125b; miRNA-146a; miRNA-155; miRNA-34a; miRNA-7; miRNA-9; miRNA-mRNA linkage analysis; microRNA (miRNA).