Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors, their role in type 1 diabetes treatment and a risk mitigation strategy for preventing diabetic ketoacidosis: The STOP DKA Protocol

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Oct;21(10):2192-2202. doi: 10.1111/dom.13811. Epub 2019 Jun 30.


Recent phase 3 clinical trials have evaluated the impact of adding sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors to the type 1 diabetes armamentarium. These trials studied SGLT2 inhibitors (dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) and a dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor (sotagliflozin), and demonstrated that these oral non-insulin antihyperglycaemic medications are able not only to improve glycaemic control, but also to reduce body weight and extend time in range without increasing rates of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a feature of type 1 diabetes and the risk is increased when SGLT inhibitors are used in type 1 diabetes. To minimize the risk of DKA and still gain the multiple benefits, we developed the "STOP DKA Protocol ", an easily accessible and practical tool, that provides a risk mitigation strategy for reducing DKA in patients with type 1 diabetes being treated with SGLT inhibitors.

Keywords: SGLT inhibitors; diabetic ketoacidosis; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis* / drug therapy
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis* / prevention & control
  • Glucosides / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Glucosides
  • Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors
  • dapagliflozin
  • empagliflozin