The regeneration of bone tissue is regulated by both osteogenic and angiogenic growth factors which are expressed in a coordinated cascade of events. The aim of this study was to create a dual growth factor-release system that allows for time-controlled release to facilitate bone regeneration. We fabricated core-shell SF/PCL/PVA nanofibrous mats using coaxial electrospinning and layer-by-layer (LBL) techniques, where bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was incorporated into the core of the nanofibers and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was attached onto the surface. Our study confirmed the sustained release of BMP2 and a rapid release of CTGF. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated improvements in bone tissue recovery with the dual-drug release system. In vivo studies showed improvement in bone regeneration by 43% compared with single BMP2 release systems. Time-controlled release enabled by the core-shell nanofiber assembly provides a promising strategy to facilitate bone healing.
Keywords: bone defects; coaxial electrospinning; controlled release; growth factor; layer-by-layer.