Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) total knockout and myeloid knockout (MKO) mice develop Crohn's-like intestinal inflammation when fed cholate-containing high fat diet (CCHF). We demonstrated that CCHF impaired intestinal barrier function and increased translocation of endotoxin, initiating TLR/MyD88-dependent inflammation in Cox2 KO but not WT mice. Cox2 MKO increased pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-activated macrophages, and in the intestinal tissue and plasma upon CCHF challenge. Cox2 MKO also reduced inflammation resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in intestinal tissue, while administration of an LXA4 analog rescued disease in Cox2 MKO mice fed CCHF. The apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mimetic 4F mitigated disease in both the Cox2 MKO/CCHF and piroxicam-accelerated Il10-/- models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and reduced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in tissue and plasma. APOA1 mimetic Tg6F therapy was also effective in reducing intestinal inflammation in the Cox2 MKO/CCHF model. We further demonstrated that APOA1 mimetic peptides: i) inhibited LPS and oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (oxPAPC) dependent pro-inflammatory responses in human macrophages and intestinal epithelium; and ii) directly cleared pro-inflammatory lipids from mouse intestinal tissue and plasma. Our results support a causal role for pro-inflammatory and inflammation resolving lipids in IBD pathology and a translational potential for APOA1 mimetic peptides for the treatment of IBD.
Keywords: Eicosanoids; Gastroenterology; Inflammatory bowel disease; Lipoproteins.