Environmental Risk Assessment of Metals in the Volcanic Soil of Changbai Mountain

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jun 10;16(11):2047. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16112047.


Tianchi volcano is a dormant active volcano with a risk of re-eruption. Volcanic soil and volcanic ash samples were collected around the volcano and the concentrations of 21 metals (major and trace elements) were determined. The spatial distribution of the metals was obtained by inverse distance weight (IDW) interpolation. The metals' sources were identified and their pollution levels were assessed to determine their potential ecological and human health risks. The metal concentrations were higher around Tianchi and at the north to the west of the study area. According to the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF) calculations, Zn pollution was high in the study area. Pearson's correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed that with the exception of Fe, Mn and As, the metals that were investigated (Al, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, Ga, Li, Co, Cd, Sn, Sr) were mostly naturally derived. A small proportion of Li, Pb and Zn may have come from vehicle traffic. There is no potential ecological risk and non-carcinogenic risk because of the low concentrations of the metals; however, it is necessary to pay attention to the carcinogenic risk of Cr and As in children.

Keywords: Tianchi volcano; ecological risk assessment; human health risk assessment; metals; volcanic soil.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • China
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Humans
  • Metals, Heavy / analysis*
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis*
  • Trace Elements / analysis
  • Volcanic Eruptions*


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Trace Elements