In terrestrial vertebrates, bone tissue constitutes the 'osteoimmune' system, which functions as a locomotor organ and a mineral reservoir as well as a primary lymphoid organ where haematopoietic stem cells are maintained. Bone and mineral metabolism is maintained by the balanced action of bone cells such as osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes, yet subverted by aberrant and/or prolonged immune responses under pathological conditions. However, osteoimmune interactions are not restricted to the unidirectional effect of the immune system on bone metabolism. In recent years, we have witnessed the discovery of effects of bone cells on immune regulation, including the function of osteoprogenitor cells in haematopoietic stem cell regulation and osteoblast-mediated suppression of haematopoietic malignancies. Moreover, the dynamic reciprocal interactions between bone and malignancies in remote organs have attracted attention, extending the horizon of osteoimmunology. Here, we discuss emerging concepts in the osteoimmune dialogue in health and disease.