Color stability, roughness, and water sorption/solubility of glass ionomer-Based restorative materials

Niger J Clin Pract. 2019 Jun;22(6):824-832. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_592_18.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various drinks on color stability and roughness of glass ionomer cement-based/-containing restorative materials and water sorption/solubility behavior of them.

Materials and methods: A total of 130 specimens for each material (GC Equia, GCP Glass Fill, Ketac N100, Glasiosite; a total of 520) were prepared using a Tefl on ring (7 × 2 mm). After specimen preparations, baseline color and surface roughness measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer and surface profi lometer, respectively. Specimens were immersed in four different solutions (n = 15; distilled water, cola, orange juice, and chocolate milk) during the 28-day test period. The immersion media were renewed daily. Color and surface roughness measurements were repeated at 1st, 7th, and 28th days. For water sorption, specimens (n = 15) were immersed in 10 mL of distilled water in individual containers and weighed at 1st week, 14th, and 28th days. After a total immersion time of 28 days, the specimens were dried to a constant mass, in a desiccator for 28 days. Each specimen was measured using a digital electronic caliper. Data were statistically analyzed (P < 0.05).

Results: After 28 days, the highest ΔE* value was calculated in GCP Glass Fill immersed in chocolate milk (10.54 ± 0.69). All the tested materials showed signifi cantly higher Ra values compared with baseline scores after immersion in various beverages regardless of the immersion solutions used (P < 0.05). Glasiosite showed the smallest water sorption (16.75 μg/mm3) among the tested materials, whereas Ketac N100 (155.41 μg/mm3) and GCP Glass Fill (161.01 μg/mm3) had the highest.

Conclusions: The compositions of restorative materials play key roles in their color stability, surface roughness, and water sorption/solubility.

Keywords: Color stability; glass ionomer material; roughness; solubility; sorption.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Beverages*
  • Carbonated Beverages
  • Chocolate
  • Citrus sinensis
  • Color
  • Composite Resins / chemistry*
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices
  • Glass Ionomer Cements / chemistry*
  • Materials Testing
  • Milk
  • Solubility
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Surface Properties
  • Water


  • Composite Resins
  • Glass Ionomer Cements
  • Water