All highly-efficient organic-inorganic halide perovskite (OIHP) solar cells to date are made of polycrystalline perovskite films which contain a high density of defects, including point and extended imperfections. The imperfections in OIHP materials play an important role in the process of charge recombination and ion migration in perovskite solar cells (PSC), which heavily influences the resulting device energy conversion efficiency and stability. Here we review the recent advances in passivation of imperfections and suppressing ion migration to achieve improved efficiency and highly stable perovskite solar cells. Due to the ionic nature of OIHP materials, the defects in the photoactive films are inevitably electrically charged. The deep level traps induced by particular charged defects in OIHP films are major non-radiative recombination centers; passivation by coordinate bonding, ionic bonding, or chemical conversion have proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these deep traps. Shallow level charge traps themselves may contribute little to non-radiative recombination, but the migration of charged shallow level traps in OIHP films results in unfavorable band bending, interfacial reactions, and phase segregation, influencing the carrier extraction efficiency. Finally, the impact of defects and ion migration on the stability of perovskite solar cells is described.