Introduction: Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is most often caused by small vessel diseases: deep perforator arteriopathy (hypertensive arteriopathy) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Although ICH accounts for only 10-15% of all strokes it causes a high proportion of stroke mortality and morbidity, with few proven effective acute or preventive treatments. Areas covered: We conducted a literature search on etiology, diagnosis, treatment, management and current clinical trials in ICH. In this review, We describe the causes, diagnosis (including new brain imaging biomarkers), classification, pathophysiological understanding, treatment (medical and surgical), and secondary prevention of ICH. Expert opinion: In recent years, significant advances have been made in deciphering causes, understanding pathophysiology, and improving acute treatment and prevention of ICH. However, the clinical outcome remains poor and many challenges remain. Acute interventions delivered rapidly (including medical therapies - targeting hematoma expansion, hemoglobin toxicity, inflammation, edema, anticoagulant reversal - and minimally invasive surgery) are likely to improve acute outcomes. Improved classification of the underlying arteriopathies (from neuroimaging and genetic studies) and prognosis should allow tailored prevention strategies (including sustained blood pressure control and optimized antithrombotic therapy) to further improve longer-term outcome in this devastating disease.
Keywords: Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage; current managment; diagnosis; stroke; treatment; update.