Deciphering how TCR signals are modulated by coinhibitory receptors is of fundamental and clinical interest. Using quantitative interactomics, we define the composition and dynamics of the PD-1 and BTLA coinhibitory signalosomes in primary effector T cells and at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell interface. We also solve the existing controversy regarding the role of the SHP-1 and SHP-2 protein-tyrosine phosphatases in mediating PD-1 coinhibition. PD-1 predominantly recruits SHP-2, but when absent, it recruits SHP-1 and remains functional. In contrast, BTLA predominantly recruits SHP-1 and to a lesser extent SHP-2. By separately analyzing the PD-1-SHP-1 and PD-1-SHP-2 complexes, we show that both dampen the TCR and CD28 signaling pathways equally. Therefore, our study illustrates how comparison of coinhibitory receptor signaling via quantitative interactomics in primary T cells unveils their extent of redundancy and provides a rationale for designing combinations of blocking antibodies in cancer immunotherapy on the basis of undisputed modes of action.
Keywords: BTLA; PD-1; SHP-1; SHP-2; T cell; cancer immunotherapy; coinhibitory receptors; combination therapy design; protein tyrosine phosphatases; quantitative interactomics.
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