This study presents an investigation of the changes in foot posture, joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces in the lower extremity following a 5 k treadmill run. A relationship between knee and ankle joint loading and foot posture index (FPI) is developed. Twenty recreational male heel-strike runners participated in this study. All participants had a history of running exercise and were free from lower extremity injuries and foot deformities. Foot posture was assessed from a six-item FPI to quantitatively classify high supination to high pronation foot poses. The FPI is scored using a combination of observations and foot palpations. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded at pre and post-gait sessions conducted over-ground and 5 k running was conducted on a treadmill. Joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces were computed in OpenSim. Simulated EMG activations were compared against experimental EMG to validate the model. A paired sample t-test was conducted using a 1D statistical parametric mapping method computed temporally. Hip joint moments and contact forces increased during initial foot contact following 5 k running. Knee abduction moment and superior-inferior knee contact force increased, whereas the knee extension moment decreased. Ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle contact forces increased during stance. FPI was found to be moderately correlated with peak knee and ankle moments. Recreational male runners presented increased static foot pronation after 5 k treadmill running. These findings suggest that following mid distance running foot pronation may be an early indicator of increased lower limb joint loading. Furthermore, the FPI may be used to quantify the changes in knee and ankle joint moments.
Keywords: OpenSim; ankle; contact force; foot posture; knee; pronation; statistical parametric mapping.
Effects of anti-pronation shoes on lower limb kinematics and kinetics in female runners with pronated feet: The role of physical fatigue.PLoS One. 2019 May 14;14(5):e0216818. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216818. eCollection 2019. PLoS One. 2019. PMID: 31086402 Free PMC article.
Contributions to the understanding of gait control.Dan Med J. 2014 Apr;61(4):B4823. Dan Med J. 2014. PMID: 24814597 Review.
Biomechanical analysis of gait waveform data: exploring differences between shod and barefoot running in habitually shod runners.Gait Posture. 2017 Oct;58:274-279. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.08.014. Epub 2017 Aug 18. Gait Posture. 2017. PMID: 28837918
Joint contact loading in forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns during running.J Biomech. 2013 Sep 3;46(13):2201-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.06.022. Epub 2013 Jul 30. J Biomech. 2013. PMID: 23910541
The biomechanical differences between barefoot and shod distance running: a systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis.Sports Med. 2013 Dec;43(12):1335-53. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0084-3. Sports Med. 2013. PMID: 23996137 Review.
Cited by 1 article
Effect of additional body weight on arch index and dynamic plantar pressure distribution during walking and gait termination.PeerJ. 2020 Apr 21;8:e8998. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8998. eCollection 2020. PeerJ. 2020. PMID: 32341901 Free PMC article.