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. 2019 May 22;10:573.
doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00573. eCollection 2019.

Foot Pronation Contributes to Altered Lower Extremity Loading After Long Distance Running

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Free PMC article

Foot Pronation Contributes to Altered Lower Extremity Loading After Long Distance Running

Qichang Mei et al. Front Physiol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

This study presents an investigation of the changes in foot posture, joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces in the lower extremity following a 5 k treadmill run. A relationship between knee and ankle joint loading and foot posture index (FPI) is developed. Twenty recreational male heel-strike runners participated in this study. All participants had a history of running exercise and were free from lower extremity injuries and foot deformities. Foot posture was assessed from a six-item FPI to quantitatively classify high supination to high pronation foot poses. The FPI is scored using a combination of observations and foot palpations. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded at pre and post-gait sessions conducted over-ground and 5 k running was conducted on a treadmill. Joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces were computed in OpenSim. Simulated EMG activations were compared against experimental EMG to validate the model. A paired sample t-test was conducted using a 1D statistical parametric mapping method computed temporally. Hip joint moments and contact forces increased during initial foot contact following 5 k running. Knee abduction moment and superior-inferior knee contact force increased, whereas the knee extension moment decreased. Ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle contact forces increased during stance. FPI was found to be moderately correlated with peak knee and ankle moments. Recreational male runners presented increased static foot pronation after 5 k treadmill running. These findings suggest that following mid distance running foot pronation may be an early indicator of increased lower limb joint loading. Furthermore, the FPI may be used to quantify the changes in knee and ankle joint moments.

Keywords: OpenSim; ankle; contact force; foot posture; knee; pronation; statistical parametric mapping.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
The hip joint angles (A–C) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
The hip moments (A–C) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3
The hip contact forces (A–C) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4
The knee joint angles (A,B) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5
The knee joint moments (A,B) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6
The knee joint contact forces (A–C) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7
The correlation of peak knee joint loadings (A, flexion moment; B, abduction moment; C, vertical loading rate) with FPI.
FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8
The ankle and subtalar joint angles (A,B) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9
The ankle and subtalar joint moments (A,B) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-represent directions).
FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10
The ankle joint contact forces (A–C) during stance with statistics (spm{t}) from spm1d (“+” and “-” represent directions).
FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11
The correlation of peak ankle (A) and subtalar (B) moments with FPI.

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