Total Fermented Dairy Food Intake Is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women

J Nutr. 2019 Oct 1;149(10):1797-1804. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz128.


Background: The relation between fermented dairy consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an Australian population remains to be established.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fermented dairy consumption and T2DM and CVD risk.

Methods: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health included Australian women (aged 45-50 y) at baseline in 2001, who were followed up through 5 surveys until 2016. Dietary intake was assessed through the use of a validated 101-item FFQ at baseline. Main study outcomes were self-reported physician-diagnosed T2DM and CVD. Logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were used to estimate the association between dairy intake and T2DM and CVD risk.

Results: Of 7633 women free of diabetes at baseline, 701 (9.2%) developed T2DM during a maximum 15-y follow-up period. Women in the highest tertile of yogurt intake had lower adjusted odds of T2DM than those in the lowest tertile (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.99; P = 0.041). This relation became nonsignificant after adjustment for dietary variables and total energy intake (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.08; P = 0.21). Of 7679 women free of CVD at baseline, 835 (10.9%) cases of CVD were reported during follow-up. High intake of yogurt and total fermented dairy was associated with lower CVD risk (OR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.00; P = 0.05, 0.80; 0.67, 0.96; 0.017, respectively) than observed in the lowest tertile of dairy product intake. Additional adjustment attenuated the relation (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.04; P = 0.13, 0.83; 0.69, 1.00; 0.048, for yogurt and total fermented dairy, respectively). No associations were found with other dairy groups.

Conclusion: The findings from this population-based study of Australian women suggest an inverse association between total fermented dairy intake and CVD risk, which may partly be accounted for by other dietary components.

Keywords: Australia; cardiovascular disease; cheese; coronary heart disease; dairy; fermented dairy; stroke; type 2 diabetes mellitus; women's health; yogurt.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cultured Milk Products*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control*
  • Diet
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors