With the rapid development of nanotechnology, the bio-barcode assay (BCA), as a new diagnostic tool, has been gradually applied to the detection of protein and nucleic acid targets and small-molecule compounds. BCA has the advantages of high sensitivity, short detection time, simple operation, low cost, good repeatability and good linear relationship between detection results. However, bio-barcode technology is not yet fully formed as a complete detection system, and the detection process in all aspects and stages is unstable. Therefore, studying the optimal reaction conditions, optimizing the experimental steps, exploring the multi-residue detection of small-molecule substances, and preparing immuno-bio-barcode kits are important research directions for the standardization and commercialization of BCA. The main theme of this review was to describe the principle of BCA, provide a comparison of its application, and introduce the single-residue and multi-residue detection of macromolecules and single-residue detection of small molecules. We also compared it with other detection methods, summarized its feasibility and limitations, expecting that with further improvement and development, the technique can be more widely used in the field of stable small-molecule and multi-residue detection.
Keywords: Application; Bio-barcode assay; Multi-residue detection of macromolecules; Protein; Single-molecule single-residue detection.