The thalamus is a mostly gray matter structure of the diencephalon that has many essential roles in human physiology. The thalamus is composed of different nuclei that each serve a unique role, ranging from relaying sensory and motor signals, as well as regulation of consciousness and alertness. Clinically, there are only a few conditions related to thalamic damage and dysfunction. Most of these conditions are rare, but some of the more common conditions have significant anatomical changes that are visible with neuroimaging. Surgical interventions of the thalamus in the past have had limitations, but currently, this field is evolving due to increased accessibility through the advancement of microsurgical techniques and improved neuroimaging.
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