Exosomes can serve as delivery vehicles for advanced therapeutics. The components necessary and sufficient to support exosomal delivery have not been established. Here we connect biochemical composition and activity of exosomes to optimize exosome-mediated delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). This information is used to create effective artificial exosomes. We show that serum-deprived mesenchymal stem cells produce exosomes up to 22-fold more effective at delivering siRNAs to neurons than exosomes derived from control cells. Proteinase treatment of exosomes stops siRNA transfer, indicating that surface proteins on exosomes are involved in trafficking. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses show that exosomes derived in serum-deprived conditions are enriched in six protein pathways and one lipid class, dilysocardiolipin. Inspired by these findings, we engineer an "artificial exosome," in which the incorporation of one lipid (dilysocardiolipin) and three proteins (Rab7, Desmoplakin, and AHSG) into conventional neutral liposomes produces vesicles that mimic cargo delivering activity of natural exosomes.
Keywords: Biochemistry; Biological Sciences; Lipidomics; Molecular Biology; Proteomics.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.